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(THE CONVERSATION) In the times main as much as Easter Sunday, Christians around the globe will take part in retellings of the story of the final days of Jesus’ life, from his entry into Jerusalem to the Last Supper and to his trial, crucifixion and resurrection. They might stroll the Stations of the Cross – a processional ritual marking key factors within the biblical narrative – attend a pageant or just collect in church for non secular providers.
And some folks will view or take heed to “Jesus Christ Superstar,” the 1971 rock musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice. NBC’s “Jesus Christ Superstar: Live in Concert,” that includes R&B star John Legend within the title position, was first broadcast on Easter Sunday 2018 and re-aired for Easter 2020. This 12 months, if you end up in Dallas throughout Holy Week, you would possibly even rating a ticket to the most recent touring manufacturing.
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As I element in my ebook “Playing God: The Bible on the Broadway Stage,” “Superstar” is essentially the most commercially profitable adaptation of a biblical story in Broadway historical past, with nicely over 1,000 performances spanning a number of productions. In some methods, that is unsurprising. Church reenactments of biblical scenes had been foundational for the event of Western theater, particularly the “quem quaeritis trope,” a Tenth-century dialogue that reenacts the second when Jesus’ physique is supposedly found lacking from the tomb. Put one other means, Christians have seen drama as an applicable option to talk the story of Jesus’ ardour and resurrection for greater than a millennium.
Yet one thing about “Superstar” has all the time appeared a bit unbelievable, and its depiction of Holy Week set off controversy from the beginning. Composer Lloyd Webber has recounted how London producers initially regarded the challenge as “the worst idea in history.” Many non secular audiences considered the play with deep suspicion for what they thought-about an irreverent method, questionable theology and its rock ‘n’ roll-influenced rating.
As a theater professor, I see “Superstar” as an vital step within the evolution of the Broadway musical, a groundbreaking rock opera that paved the best way for up to date hits like “Mamma Mia!” and “Hamilton.” But the musical’s now-canonical standing was something however inevitable.
The present’s irreverent angle is encapsulated in its title track, which mixes a hovering choral hook (“Jesus Christ, Superstar, Do you think you’re what they say you are?”) with a sequence of pointed and ironic questions by way of rock melody – “Why’d you choose such a backward time and such a strange land?”
Though set within the Jerusalem of two,000 years in the past, the play makes use of fashionable language – “Jesus is cool” – and imagery, equivalent to paparazzi following Jesus by means of the streets. By representing Jesus as a charismatic celeb whose fame spirals uncontrolled, “Superstar” affords audiences a recent framework for understanding the traditional biblical narrative. This is underlined by self-aware lyrics that provide commentary on how the Passion story would go on to be informed. During the Last Supper scene, for instance, Jesus’ disciples sing:
Always hoped that I’d be an apostle Knew that I’d make it if I attempted Then once we retire, we are able to write the gospels So they’ll nonetheless speak about us once we’ve died.
For conservative Christians, such lighthearted paraphrasing of Scripture might have been offensive. More troubling, within the eyes of many spiritual leaders, was the musical’s theology. “Superstar” is structured equally to a conventional Christian Passion play, depicting Jesus’ remaining days. But it abruptly ends with the crucifixion, omitting the resurrection that’s on the coronary heart of the Easter story – and Christianity itself. What’s extra, the play hints at a romantic relationship between Jesus and his supporter Mary Magdalene, and provides a distinguished position to Judas, the disciple whom the Gospels say betrayed Jesus – in truth, Judas is arguably the present’s main man.
All this brought on many Christian leaders to dismiss the present as blasphemous. Others argued that, whereas well-meaning, “Superstar” was overly targeted on Christ’s humanity, to the exclusion of his divinity.
Meanwhile, Jewish organizations expressed concern that the play would encourage antisemitism by perpetuating the concept that Jews bear duty for the loss of life of Christ. A trio of Jewish monks sings “This Jesus Must Die,” and later pressures a reluctant Pontius Pilate to have Jesus crucified.
In 1971, this was a very sore spot for Jewish-Christian relations. The concept that the Jewish folks bore collective guilt for killing Jesus had lengthy been a part of antisemitic rhetoric from Catholic leaders just like the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin. In truth, it wasn’t till 1965 that the Vatican formally declared, “what happened in [Christ’s] passion cannot be charged against all the Jews, without distinction, then alive, nor against the Jews of today.”
Still, most early objections to “Superstar” had been pushed much less by its content material and extra by its type. The mere thought of turning the Bible right into a loud, flashy, rock ‘n’ roll spectacle was typically seen as a sort of sacrilege. As faith scholar David Chidester and others have noticed, conservative Christian teams have traditionally complained concerning the superficial and amoral nature of American widespread tradition, with explicit distaste for its music. In this view, rock lyrics advocate sin whereas the loud, sensual and unrestrained nature of the music encourages it.
For such critics, “Jesus Christ Superstar” appeared to pose a risk just by juxtaposing the sacred narrative of the Bible with the profane environment of the rock live performance.
Yet half a century after its premiere, the musical not generates a lot controversy. The recognition and appreciation of Jesus’ humanity has progressively turn out to be extra acceptable amongst American Christians, although to not the exclusion of his divinity. Compared with earlier generations, Generation X and millennials are much less more likely to learn Scripture, and due to this fact much less more likely to be involved over positive factors of theological interpretation.
Rock music, in the meantime, is getting older together with its followers, whereas the rise of the American megachurch has blurred the road between rock live performance and church service, between celebrities and non secular leaders. No longer are electrical devices, flashy costumes, spotlights and microphones seen as disrespectful or inconsistent with worship.
Perhaps most importantly, immediately’s audiences, each non secular and never, might merely have a larger regard for so-called superstars. For many individuals within the Seventies, the musical’s comparability of the deification of Christ and the idolatry of a rock star was inherently derogatory, undercutting Jesus’ non secular significance. Yet immediately, in an period when Lady Gaga has six occasions as many Instagram followers as Pope Francis, arguably the title – and the musical itself – reads as a extra honest type of appreciation.
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This article has been up to date to right the lyrics to “The Last Supper.”
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